Introductory Statistics
Topic outline

Welcome to Introductory Statistics [CMAT 1303]!
Course Introduction
This Introductory Statistics [CMAT 1303] course adheres to the scope and sequence of a onesemester Introductory Statistics course. The course description provided is the from the statewide common course information.Course Description: Descriptive statistics; probability; discrete and continuous (including the binomial, normal and T) distributions; sampling distributions; interval estimation; hypothesis testing; linear regression and correlation.Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:
 Explain and apply principles of study design and data collection.
 Give examples of biased and random sampling techniques.
 Construct and interpret graphical summaries of data.
 Identify characteristics of graphs that are poor practice and may mislead an audience.
 Compute and interpret numerical summary statistics, including central tendency and variability.
 Construct and draw inferences from charts, tables, and graphs that summarize data from realworld graphically.
 Analyze study design to rate the reliability of an inference.
 Compute probabilities of events using probability and counting rules.
 Apply the concept of a random variable to generate and interpret probability distribution including binomial, uniform, normal, and chisquare.
 Use the Central Limit Theorem.
 Determine point estimates, confidence intervals, and appropriate sample size.
 Perform hypothesis testing and recommend whether the null should be rejected or not.
 Graphically and numerically describe the relationship between two quantitative variables, including correlation coefficients, coefficients of determination, and regression formulas.
Adopting instructors can embed a welcome video or add additional text here.
Structure of the Course
The course includes 12 content Modules which covers each of the 11 chapters in the textbook (provided link). Each module includes a brief introduction text with module learning objectives, links to the corresponding Pressbook sections, homework assignments in MyOpenMath, a Chapter Review, additional Chapter Practice and Homework, a Quiz in MyOpenMath, a Chapter Project, and a Q&A discussion forum for that Module. There are additional modules for smaller Exams, a Midterm Exam, and/or Final Exam.
Navigating the Course
Please move through the items below and continue through the Learner Support and Getting Started modules before moving on to Module 1. Be sure to check for announcements and due dates to stay on track.Adopting instructors can embed a navigation video or add additional text here.
This course and its contents are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License by LOUIS: The Louisiana Library Network, except where otherwise noted.Adopting instructors should edit the About Your Instructor and Office Hours Information pages in this Module.

Adopting instructors should edit all pages in this Module  as per their own Institution's policies.

This module contains all the items you should review and complete before you begin Module 1. Before moving on, be sure to:
 Check the News and Announcements Forum
 Read the Course Syllabus
 Introduce yourself to the class
 Read the instructions for the Q & A Forum
Good luck in the course!
Use this forum to tell us a little about yourself and your interests. Some topic ideas:
 What is your field of study/research interest or concentration?
 What are you most interested in learning about in this class and why?
 Have you ever taken an online class before?
 Any other information you would like to share with your classmates, such as special interests or activities.
Post a picture! We look forward to meeting you.

Use this forum to ask your instructor any questions you have about the course. You may post at any time, and your instructor will respond here. Be as specific as possible.
Please keep in mind that others can see your posts, so do not post any personal information. If you have questions about your grade, please email your instructor directly. You can expect a response to posts and emails within [X] hours. [Recommendation is 24 hours MF, next business day on weekends.]
Subscription should be set to Auto.

Use this forum to tell us a little about yourself and your interests. Some topic ideas:
 What is your field of study/research interest or concentration?
 What are you most interested in learning about in this class and why?
 Have you ever taken an online class before?
 Any other information you would like to share with your classmates, such as special interests or activities.
Post a picture! We look forward to meeting you.

Use this forum to ask your instructor any questions you have about the course. You may post at any time, and your instructor will respond here. Be as specific as possible.
Please keep in mind that others can see your posts, so do not post any personal information. If you have questions about your grade, please email your instructor directly. You can expect a response to posts and emails within [X] hours. [Recommendation is 24 hours MF, next business day on weekends.]
Subscription should be set to Auto.
 Check the News and Announcements Forum

You are probably asking yourself the question, "When and where will I use statistics?" If you read any newspaper, watch television, or use the Internet, you will see statistical information. There are statistics about crime, sports, education, politics, and real estate. Typically, when you read a newspaper article or watch a television news program, you are given sample information.
With this information, you may make a decision about the correctness of a statement, claim, or "fact." Statistical methods can help you make the "best educated guess."
Since you will undoubtedly be given statistical information at some point in your life, you need to know some techniques for analyzing the information thoughtfully. Think about buying a house or managing a budget. Think about your chosen profession. The fields of economics, business, psychology, education, biology, law, computer science, police science, and early childhood development require at least one course in statistics.
Included in this chapter are the basic ideas and words of probability and statistics. You will soon understand that statistics and probability work together. You will also learn how data are gathered and what "good" data can be distinguished from "bad."
Image Caption: We encounter statistics in our daily lives more often than we probably realize and from many different sources, like the news, the weather, the lab, and the classroom. (credit: David Sim)
(Content & Image Source: Chapter 1 Introduction, Introductory Statistics, Barbara Illowsky and Susan Dean, OpenStax, CC BY 4.0 License)
Upon completion of this module, you will be able to:Section 1.1 Recognize and differentiate between key terms.
Section 1.2 Classify data as qualitative or quantitative, continuous, discrete, or neither.
 Determine types of graphs appropriate for specific data.
 Apply various types of sampling methods to data collection.
Section 1.3 Determine the level of measurements for variables.
 Create and interpret frequency tables.
Section 1.4 Classify variables used for conducting an experiment.
 Identify the ethical concerns that arise when conducting a study.
To achieve these objectives: Read the Module 1 Introduction (see above).
 Read Sections 1.1  1.4 of Chapter 1: Sampling and Data in Introductory Statistics (links to each Section provided below)
 Complete the MyOpenMath Homework Assignments for the topics in the Chapter (links provided below)  These are graded!
 View the Chapter 1 Review (link provided below)
 Practice the problems in the Chapter 1 Practice and Homework, checking the solutions provided (links to each provided below)
 Submit the Chapter 1 Project I: Data Collection Experiment or the Chapter 1 Project II: Sampling Experiment (links to project and submission link provided below)
 Complete the MyOpenMath Quiz for Chapter 1 (link provided below)  This is graded!
 Once you complete the Quiz, upload your work in the Quiz Work Upload Assignment using the submission link below.
 Post in the Chapter 1 Q&A Discussion Forum  link provided below.
Note the check boxes to the right that help you track your progress: some are automatic, and some are manual.
Module Pressbooks Resources and Activities
You will find the following resources and activities in this module at the Pressbooks website. Click on the links below to access or complete each item.
 Recognize and differentiate between key terms.

Once you have collected data, what will you do with it? Data can be described and presented in many different formats. For example, suppose you are interested in buying a house in a particular area. You may have no clue about the house prices, so you might ask your real estate agent to give you a sample data set of prices. Looking at all the prices in the sample often is overwhelming. A better way might be to look at the median price and the variation of prices. The median and variation are just two ways that you will learn to describe data. Your agent might also provide you with a graph of the data.
In this chapter, you will study numerical and graphical ways to describe and display your data. This area of statistics is called "Descriptive Statistics." You will learn how to calculate, and even more importantly, how to interpret these measurements and graphs.
A statistical graph is a tool that helps you learn about the shape or distribution of a sample or a population. A graph can be a more effective way of presenting data than a mass of numbers because we can see where data clusters and where there are only a few data values. Newspapers and the Internet use graphs to show trends and to enable readers to compare facts and figures quickly. Statisticians often graph data first to get a picture of the data. Then, more formal tools may be applied.
Some of the types of graphs that are used to summarize and organize data are the dot plot, the bar graph, the histogram, the stemandleaf plot, the frequency polygon (a type of broken line graph), the pie chart, and the box plot. In this chapter, we will briefly look at stemandleaf plots, line graphs, and bar graphs, as well as frequency polygons, and time series graphs. Our emphasis will be on histograms and box plots.
Image Caption: When you have large amounts of data, you will need to organize it in a way that makes sense. These ballots from an election are rolled together with similar ballots to keep them organized. (credit: William Greeson)
(Content & Image Source: Chapter 2 Introduction, Introductory Statistics, Barbara Illowsky and Susan Dean, OpenStax, CC BY 4.0 License)
Upon completion of this module, you will be able to:2.1 StemandLeaf Graphs (Stemplots), Line Graphs, and Bar Graphs Display data graphically and interpret data with stemplots.
 Construct other types of graphs and interpret information displayed in: line graphs and bar graphs.
2.2 Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Time Series Graphs Display data graphically and interpret data with histograms.
 Construct other types of graphs and interpret information displayed in: frequency polygons and time series graphs.
2.3 Measures of the Location of the Data Recognize, describe, and calculate the measures of location of data: quartiles and percentiles.
 Compute the fivenumber summary.
2.4 Box Plots Display data graphically and interpret box plots.
2.5 Measures of the Center of the Data Recognize, describe, and calculate the measures of the center of data: mean, median, and mode.
 Compute the mean, median, and mode of grouped frequency.
2.6 Skewness and the Mean, Median, and Mode Recognize basic distribution shapes.
2.7 Measures of the Spread of the Data Recognize, describe, and calculate the measures of the spread of data: variance, standard deviation, and range.
 Use the mean and the standard deviation to calculate zscores and the empirical rule.
To achieve these objectives: Read the Module 2 Introduction (see above).
 Read Sections 2.1  2.7 of Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics in Introductory Statistics (links to each Section provided below)
 Complete the MyOpenMath Homework Assignments for the topics in the Chapter (links provided below)  These are graded!
 View the Chapter 2 Review (link provided below)
 Practice the problems in the Chapter 2 Practice and Homework, checking the solutions provided (links to each provided below)
 Submit the Chapter 2 Project: Descriptive Statistics (links to project and submission link provided below)
 Complete the MyOpenMath Quiz for Chapter 2 (link provided below)  This is graded!
 Once you complete the Quiz, upload your work in the Quiz Work Upload Assignment using the submission link below.
 Post in the Chapter 2 Q&A Discussion Forum  link provided below.
Note the check boxes to the right that help you track your progress: some are automatic, and some are manual.Module Pressbooks Resources and Activities
You will find the following resources and activities in this module at the Pressbooks website. Click on the links below to access or complete each item.

It is often necessary to "guess" about the outcome of an event in order to make a decision. Politicians study polls to guess their likelihood of winning an election. Teachers choose a particular course of study based on what they think students can comprehend. Doctors choose the treatments needed for various diseases based on their assessment of likely results. You may have visited a casino where people play games chosen because of the belief that the likelihood of winning is good. You may have chosen your course of study based on the probable availability of jobs.
You have, more than likely, used probability. In fact, you probably have an intuitive sense of probability. Probability deals with the chance of an event occurring. Whenever you weigh the odds of whether or not to do your homework or to study for an exam, you are using probability. In this chapter, you will learn how to solve probability problems using a systematic approach.
Image Caption: Meteor showers are rare, but the probability of them occurring can be calculated. (credit: Navicore/flickr)
(Content & Image Source: Chapter 3 Introduction, Introductory Statistics, Barbara Illowsky and Susan Dean, OpenStax, CC BY 4.0 License)
Upon completion of this module, you will be able to:3.1 Terminology Define and use common probability terms
 Compute probabilities for common experiments with equally likely outcomes
 Combine events and compute the resulting probabilities
 Compute conditional probabilities
3.2 Independent and Mutually Exclusive Events Identify two events as mutually exclusive, or not
 Identify two events as independent, or not
 Use the relationships between events to compute probabilities
3.3 Two Basic Rules of Probability state and apply the multiplication rule to any two events
 state and apply the multiplication rule for independent events
 state and apply the addition rule for any two events
 state and apply the addition rule for mutually exclusive events
3.4 Contingency Tables Use a given contingency table to compute probabilities
 Complete a contingency table given starting information about a sample
3.5 Tree and Venn Diagrams Use tree diagrams to find probabilities for experiments with and without replacement
 Use Venn diagrams to visualize relationships between events
To achieve these objectives: Read the Module 3 Introduction (see above).
 Read Sections 3.1  3.5 of Chapter 3: Probability Topics in Introductory Statistics (links to each Section provided below)
 Complete the MyOpenMath Homework Assignments for the topics in the Chapter (links provided below)  These are graded!
 View the Chapter 3 Review (link provided below)
 Practice the problems in the Chapter 3 Practice and Homework, checking the solutions provided (links to each provided below)
 Submit the Chapter 3 Project: Probability Topics (links to project and submission link provided below)
 Complete the MyOpenMath Quiz for Chapter 3 (link provided below)  This is graded!
 Once you complete the Quiz, upload your work in the Quiz Work Upload Assignment using the submission link below.
 Post in the Chapter 3 Q&A Discussion Forum  link provided below.
Note the check boxes to the right that help you track your progress: some are automatic, and some are manual.Module Pressbooks Resources and Activities
You will find the following resources and activities in this module at the Pressbooks website. Click on the links below to access or complete each item.

In this module you will take your Exam 1 .
Read the Exam 1 Information and Instructions page carefully and take note of any special submission guidelines.
Upon completion of this module, you will have: Read and viewed the Exam 1 Information and Instructions page
 Scheduled your exam with the proctoring service [if applicable, delete if not needed]
 Post in the Exam 1 Q&A Discussion Forum  link provided below.
 Prepared for and submitted your Exam 1 [revise as needed]
 Uploaded your work in the Exam 1 Work Upload Assignment using the submission link below.
Attribution of image: ("Math, Numbers, Number image. Free for use." Pixabay.com. https://pixabay.com/photos/mathnumbersnumbercounting5247958/)
Adopting instructors: Edit the Exam 1 Information and Instructions page.

Let us begin with two different examples of the types of probability problems we'll be able to model using the techniques of this chapter.
Example 1: Suppose a student takes a tenquestion, truefalse quiz. Because the student had such a busy schedule, they could not study and guess randomly at each answer. What is the probability of the student passing the quiz with at least a 70%?
Example 2: Small companies might be interested in the number of unread emails sitting in their employee's mailboxes. If the average number of unread emails is 100 at the end of the workday, what is the probability that on a given day, the employees have more than 120 unread emails at the end of the workday?
Each of these probabilities can be found if we know the distribution of the corresponding discrete random variable. Recall that discrete data are data that you can count. A random variable describes the outcomes of a statistical experiment in words. The values of a random variable can vary with each repetition of an experiment.
Image Caption: You can use probability and discrete random variables to calculate the likelihood of lightning striking the ground five times during a halfhour thunderstorm. (Credit: Leszek Leszczynski)
(Content & Image Source: Chapter 4 Introduction, Introductory Statistics, Barbara Illowsky and Susan Dean, OpenStax, CC BY 4.0 License)
Upon completion of this module, you will be able to:4.1 Probability Distribution Function (PDF) for a Discrete Random Variable Validate the properties of a discrete probability distribution function
 Write a probability distribution function for given discrete data
4.2 Measures of General Discrete Random Variables Calculate and interpret expected values of general random variables
 Calculate and interpret the variance and standard deviation of general random variables
4.3 Binomial Distribution Identify the components of a binomial experiment
 Use the formulas for a binomial random variable to compute mean, variance, and standard deviation
4.4 Geometric Distribution Identify the components of a geometric experiment
 Use the formulas for a geometric random variable to compute mean, variance, and standard deviation
4.5 Hypergeometric Distribution Identify the components of a hypergeometric experiment
 Use the formulas for a hypergeometric random variable to compute mean, variance, and standard deviation
4.6 Poisson Distribution Identify the components of a Poisson experiment
 Use the formulas for a Poisson random variable to compute the mean, variance, and standard deviation
To achieve these objectives: Read the Module 4 Introduction (see above).
 Read Sections 4.1  4.6 of Chapter 4: Discrete Random Variables in Introductory Statistics (links to each Section provided below)
 Complete the MyOpenMath Homework Assignments for the topics in the Chapter (links provided below)  These are graded!
 View the Chapter 4 Review (link provided below)
 Practice the problems in the Chapter 4 Practice and Homework, checking the solutions provided (links to each provided below)
 Submit the Chapter 4 Project I: Lucky Dice Experiment or the Chapter 4 Project II: Playing Card Experiment (links to project and submission link provided below)
 Complete the MyOpenMath Quiz for Chapter 4 (link provided below)  This is graded!
 Once you complete the Quiz, upload your work in the Quiz Work Upload Assignment using the submission link below.
 Post in the Chapter 4 Q&A Discussion Forum  link provided below.
Note the check boxes to the right that help you track your progress: some are automatic, and some are manual.Module Pressbooks Resources and Activities
You will find the following resources and activities in this module at the Pressbooks website. Click on the links below to access or complete each item.